MAPPING ON E-FLORA BC
Golden Fleabane (Erigeron aureus), photo by Virginia Skilton
Read about limitations of our maps here.
Mapping is a significant component of E-Flora BC and helps us visualize species distributions. In this section, we introduce our maps, then provide a list of the databases we use for mapping and their associated metadata. Scroll down for the list of databases and the metadata.
About our maps
On E-Flora BC we provide dynamic interactive mapping for each species group covered in the atlas, where data is available. The exception is lichens. Lichen collection data is presently being vetted before we map it.
On the atlas pages we provide a thumbnail of the full-sized interactive map for quick reference. The full-size maps may be accessed via a link located below the thumbnail map.
The full-size interactive maps are versatile maps that take advantage of current technology and web mapping software. Because the maps are dynamic (generated at the moment of a search) they are current, up-to-date representations of the databases that have been provided us for mapping.
The data from each data provider is presented on the maps in individual layers that may be viewed together or separately or in any combination. Layers may be turned on and off by going to the LAYERS box on the right-hand side of the maps. Click on the white box at the top of the LAYERS box to access the legend for the coloured dots. These dots represent individual data layers. You may turn layers off and on in the legend.
One advantage of interactive mapping is that you can view the data behind the distribvution dots. Just click on a dot to call up the associated data. You can also add more, geographic, data layers to your map, including climate and other information. This, too, is done from the LAYERS box.
Where available, we also provide vetted static maps prepared by experts (e.g. mosses and liverworts). These static maps may be accessed by the link located below the map on the atlas page (the link is present if a static map is available).
What we map
On E-Flora, we primarily map specimen-based records of species occurrences in the province (herbarium records). However, we do also map photo records (where the voucher is a photo), and some observation-based records from the Alien Invasive Plant Program and the Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem program (BEC).
The maps focus primarily on species distribution in BC and the Pacific Northwest but may also provide some coverage of other regions (if this information is present in the databases we use in our mapping). Pan the interactive maps to view distribution dots in other regions.
Locations of listed species in British Columbia (that is, rare, threatened or endangered species) are mapped to general coordinates only.
What you need to know
Note that on E-Flora we often include separate atlas pages and associated maps for species as well as atlas pages for subspecies and varieties. The maps on these species pages capture collection records from herbaria where collections may only have been determined to the species level, and the sub-taxa maps may not represent full distribution of that sub-taxon in BC. Sometimes we present only the subspecies or variety atlas page and map, usually where there is no confusion about the dots.
Where to report map errors
Our maps are based on databases of specimen and observation data constructed by the Royal BC Museum (V), CAN, UBC, BEC, IAPP and others. Errors or ommissions should be reported directly to the appropriated institution so they can correct and update their databases. Contact information is provided below, or go here.
Red-flagged maps on E-Flora
Where our maps significantly differ from currently known distribution of a species in the province, based on re-assessments conducted by Conservation Data Centre botanists and other botanists, they will be red-flagged. There is often a lag time between reassessment of a species and incorporation of that information into the databases we use for mapping.
THE DATABASES WE USE
Information presented on our distribution maps is drawn from these databases :
Metadata for the databases
UBC (UBC Herbarium Database)
The UBC Herbarium has provided us with BC records for vascular and nonvascular plants that have been entered into their databases with latitudes and longitudes. This represents ~88,5000 vascular plant records, ~75,300 bryophyte records, ~42,300 algae records, and ~26,600 lichen records. The collections are continuously being computerized with the lichen and fungal collections complete, algae 80% entered, and vascular and bryophyte collections data entry roughly 60% complete. The UBC herbarium databases were used in development of our interactive maps. The complete UBC Herbarium plant databases, with nearly 450,000 records, are available on-line. Please send comments and corrections directly to the UBC herbarium email@example.com.
IFBC (Illustrated Flora
of BC Database)
Metadata for the Illustrated Flora of
BC (IFBC) database can be found here.
the records are based on field notes, published floras and drawn
maps. Therefore, not all records will have an associated herbarium
collection. Also, it is impossible to determine which herbarium
record corresponds with a specific IFBC dot on the map, given the
nature of the data. Number of records: 102,573. Illustrated Flora of BC data may also be viewed in hard copy via the 8-volume set by Douglas et al. 1998-2002.
BCCDC (British Columbia Conservation Database)
Records from the BCCDC are from the Non-sensitive Occurrences database (~2700 vascular plant records). These records are individual, verified occurrences for species mapped by the BC Conservation Data Centre. Information on the content of this database can be found here.
Please send comments and corrections related to either database to Jenifer Penny.
BEC (Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification
The provincial Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification
(BEC) database, representing over 1,238,000 observation records in the
province, and used in the development of the BC provincial BEC
maps, was used in the creation of both our static maps and our interactive maps, BEC data is presented
on approximately 2230 of the E-Flora vascular and nonvascular plant atlas pages (not all BC species fall within BEC survey plots). Only < 10% of the records
within this database are represented by collections maintained in
a herbarium. Additional information on the BEC database is provided here. BEC is an hierarchical system that uses climate,
soil and characteristic vegetation to group ecosystems at various
levels, including regionally, locally and chronologically. BEC data was used to generate our ecology information tables for each species, where available.
Please send comments and corrections to Will MacKenzie.
CAN (The National Herbarium of Canada Vascular
The National Herbarium of Canada, Canadian Museum of Nature, has provided us
with all of their BC records for vascular plants contained in their database
as of October 2003. This represents 9,521 collections, and includes all
species, and collectors names. This database is used in both our static maps and our interactive maps.
Please send comments and corrections directly to Jennifer Doubt.
ALTA (Devonian Botanical Garden Bryophyte Database)
The Devonian Botanical Garden has provided the BC portion of their bryophyte database to E-Flora BC. This represents specimen and locational information that is discrete from the UBC bryophyte holdings (~4260 records). Please send comments and corrections to Rene Belland.
IAPP (BC Ministry of Forests and Range Invasive Alien Plant Program database)
This observation-based database adds considerably to the known distribution of more than 130 invasive species in the province, and appears on our maps as an additional data layer labelled as the Invasive Alien Plant Program (~163,400 records). Information on the database can be found here, and instructions on how to obtain direct access to their database is provided here. Please send comments and corrections to Val Miller.
V (RBCM) (Royal British Columbia Museum Herbarium
The RBCM (V) vascular and nonvascular plant records used in E-Flora represent only about 50% of the collections
contained within that herbarium--that is, only those collections
that have been entered in their vascular plant database as of 2004. Because of their data policy restrictions, no Red- or Blue-listed species records are included in our copy
of their database, and all information associated with the collector
has also been removed. The
total number of records provided to us is 71.587.
Please send comments and corrections directly to Dr. Ken Marr.
ALA (University of Alaska Herbarium Database)
Vascular and nonvascular plant records for southern Alaska were provided to E-Flora BC (~15,600 records). Information on the Herbarium can be found here.
Please send comments and corrections directly to E-Flora BC
PNW (Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria Database)
Vascular and nonvascular plant records were obtained from the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database (~355,500 vascular plant records, ~11180 bryophyte records, ~12,780 lichen records). Note that BC-specific records from UBC and the RBCM (V) have been treated separately (i.e., the CPNWH records plotted in E-Flora BC do not include records from UBC or V). The Consortium records include records from Oregon State University Herbarium, University of Idaho Stillinger Herbarium, University of Washington Herbarium (Accessed through PNW Herbaria Portal, www.pnwherbaria.org, 2011-11). Questions and corrections for data from the Consortium should be directed to the individual institutions/data providers listed here.
British Columbia plant species codes
and selected attributes. Version 6 Database.
These species code files contain the presently
accepted scientific and common names for vascular plants, mosses
and lichens of British Columbia. The liverworts and hornworts included
on this list are derived from the North American lists, as a B.C. list does
not exist. Species attributes include lifeform, toxicity, weed status,
wetland indicator value, rare (red or blue list) ranking, and whether
native or exotic. As the Illustrated Flora of British Columbia is
now complete (a total of 8 volumes), this list will only be updated
when required (every 1- 2 years). Additional details, and the complete species
list, can be found on the BEC web site. The citation for this data is: Meidinger, Del; Lee, Tina; Douglas, George W.; Britton, Greg; MacKenzie, Will.; Qian, Hong. 2009. British Columbia plant species codes and selected attributes. Version 6 Database. Research Branch. B.C. Ministry of Forests.