UNIT 42 - TEMPORAL AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATIONS

A. INTRODUCTION

B. VERTICAL DIMENSION ("3D")

Uses of 3D representations

C. CHARACTER OF THE PHENOMENON

Distribution

Topological complexity

Geometric complexity

D. METHODS OF REPRESENTATION

2 1/2 dimensions

True three dimensional representations

Summary

E. TIME DEPENDENCE

Possible models

Summary

REFERENCES

Bouille, F. 1976. "A Model of Scientific Data Bank and Its Applications to Geological Data," Computers and Geosciences 2: 279-291.

Carter, J.R. 1988. "Digital Representations of Topographic Surfaces: An Overview," in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Technical Papers 5:54-60.

Ganter, J.H. 1989. "A Comparison of Representations for Complex Earth Volumes," Auto-Carto 9: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography, Baltimore, MD.

Hagerstrand, T., 1970. "What about people in Regional Science?" Papers, Regional Science Association 24:7-21. Discusses the concept of space-time prisms in human spatial behavior.

Kavouras, M. and S. Masry, 1987. "An Information System for Geosciences: Design Considerations," Auto-Carto 8: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography, ASPRS/ACSM, Falls Church, VA, pp. 282-291.

Langran, G., 1989. "A review of temporal database research and its use in GIS applications," International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 3(3):215-32. Can research on time dependence in databases help in representing the effects of time in GIS data?

Langran, G. and N.R. Chrisman, 1988. "A framework for temporal geographic information," Cartographica 25(3):1- 14. Discusses models for representing temporal change in GIS.

Mark, D.M. and J.A. Cebrian, 1986. "Oct-trees: A Useful Data- Structure for the Processing of Topographic and Sub- Surface Data," ACSM/ASPRS Technical Papers 1:104-113.

Raper, Jonathan. Three Dimensional Applications in GIS, Taylor and Francis, New York. A collection of papers on the developing technology of 3D GIS.

Requicha, A.A.G. 1980. "Representations for Rigid Solids: Theory, Methods and Systems," ACM Computing Surveys 12:437-464.

DISCUSSION AND EXAM QUESTIONS

1. You are directed to build a 3-D representation for (a) a civil engineer; (b) a petroleum geologist; (c) a hydrogeologist; (d) a meteorologist. What kinds of questions might you ask each specialist about their job and what they want from the representation?

2. How do the distributions considered by each of the individuals (above) compare?

3. What would be the advantages and limitations of surface representations, B-reps and SOE in different disciplines and applications?

4. Many people have assumed that the problems of moving from 2D to 3D in GIS are comparable to those of moving from 2D to time-dependent 2D. Do you agree?


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