UNIT 57 - DECISION MAKING USING MULTIPLE CRITERIA

UNIT 57 - DECISION MAKING USING MULTIPLE CRITERIA

Compiled with assistance from C. Peter Keller, University of Victoria, Canada

  • A. INTRODUCTION
  • B. SPATIAL DECISION MAKING
  • C. MULTIPLE CRITERIA AND GIS
  • D. THE CONCEPT OF NONINFERIORITY
  • E. BASIC MULTIPLE CRITERIA SOLUTION TECHNIQUES
  • F. GOAL PROGRAMMING
  • G. WEIGHTING METHOD
  • H. NORTH BAY BYPASS EXAMPLE
  • REFERENCES
  • EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
  • NOTES

    This unit begins a three part module introducing concepts and techniques of spatial decision-making. Although it is far from a complete coverage of the topic, it will provide students with a sampling of the kinds of decision-making activities GIS will be required to support.

    UNIT 57 - DECISION MAKING USING MULTIPLE CRITERIA

    Compiled with assistance from C. Peter Keller, University of Victoria, Canada

    A. INTRODUCTION

    Goals of this unit

    B. SPATIAL DECISION MAKING

    Examples of spatial decision making

    General steps involved in traditional approach

    Assumptions involved with this type of analysis

    Example 1: The fire station location problem

    Example 2: Land suitability assessment

    General observations

    Conclusion

    C. MULTIPLE CRITERIA AND GIS

    D. THE CONCEPT OF NONINFERIORITY

    E. BASIC MULTIPLE CRITERIA SOLUTION TECHNIQUES

    F. GOAL PROGRAMMING

    Choose criteria and assign weights

    Build a concordance matrix

    Summary

    G. WEIGHTING METHOD

    H. NORTH BAY BYPASS EXAMPLE

    Impact factors

    Alternative routes

    Combination of factors

    Weighting

    Concordance analysis

    Results

    REFERENCES

    General introduction to multicriteria decision-making:

    Cohon, Jared L., 1978. Multiobjective Programming and Planning, Academic Press, Mathematics in Science and Engineering, Vol. 140

    Massam, B.H., 1980. Spatial Search. Pergamon, London. Gives many examples of applications of multicriteria methods, in addition to the North Bay study used in this unit.

    Rietveld, P. 1980. Multiple Objective Decision Methods and Regional Planning, Studies in Regional Science and Urban Economics; Volume 7, North Holland Publishing Company.

    Goal Programming:

    Lee, S. M., 1972. Goal Programming for Decision Analysis, Auerbach, Philadelphia. A general introduction to Goal Programming.

    The following are examples of applications of Goal Programming:

    Barber, G., 1976. "Land-Use Plan Design via Interactive Multi- Objective Programming," Environment and Planning 8:239- 245.

    Courtney, J. F., Jr., T.D. Klastorin and T.W. Ruefli, 1972. "A Goal Programming Approach to Urban-Suburban Location Preference," Management Science 18:258-268.

    Dane. C.W., N.C. Meador and J.B. White, 1977. "Goal Programming in Land Use Planning," Journal of Forestry 75:325-329.

    Weighting Method:

    discussed in: Cohon, Jared L., 1978. Multiobjective Programming and Planning, Academic Press, Mathematics in Science and Engineering, Vol. 140.

    EXAM AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

    1. Compare the goal programming and weighting methods in terms of technique, practicality and effectiveness at reaching solutions to difficult problems.

    2. Discuss the North Bay study as an exercise in community decision-making. What are its strengths and weaknesses? In what ways did it succeed or fail in involving the community in the decision-making process?

    3. How might the methodology of the North Bay study be manipulated or distorted by an unscrupulous agency with a hidden agenda? What can be done to protect against this possibility?

    4. One of the advantages of decision-making using GIS is that the effects of changes in criteria can be seen almost immediately, in e.g. search for the best site for an activity. Discuss the impact that this capability might have on the decision-making process. Do you regard this impact as positive or negative?

    5. Select a current local planning issue and discuss the decision-making criteria being promoted by various interest groups and individuals.


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